February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 12, NUMBER 1, JANUARY 1999
Options for CO2 Capture and Management, Carola Hanisch,
Environ. Sci. & Technol. 33 (3), 66 A-70 A (Feb. 1,
The Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies held in
Interlaken, Switzerland, last fall reviewed progress in large-scale
mitigation efforts and the technical principles on which they are based. A
summary of the conference highlighted several of these efforts:
- Norsk Hydro is planning a 1300-megawatt (MW) hydrogen power plant
that will produce 10% of Norways electricity. The project will
produce hydrogen from natural gas in a reforming process. The CO2
produced as a waste product will be separated using a conventional
chemical absorption process and then pumped into an offshore oilfield
for use in enhanced oil-recovery operations. The remaining hydrogen-rich
gas stream will serve as a fuel in a combined-cycle power plant.
- An international European research project has accumulated two years
experience with CO2 injection into an aquifer under the
Norwegian North Sea and is establishing a best-practices manual to help
them make decisions about future injection projects.
- In the United States, initial results from the worlds first
pilot project to inject CO2 into deep coal seams to enhance
methane recovery show this new technology to be technically and
economically feasible. The CO2 gas is absorbed on the coal
surface, thereby replacing and freeing methane. Two molecules of CO2
are trapped for every molecule of methane released.
- Kvaerner Oil & Gas and W. L. Gore & Associates have
initiated an R&D project that will remove CO2 from flue
gas. The gas will be pumped through Teflon-membrane fibers surrounded by
the absorption liquid; CO2 passes through the semipermeable
membrane and is absorbed and removed by the liquid.
- In the North Sea off the Norway coast, the worlds first
ocean-aquifer storage project separates CO2 from natural gas
and pumps it into an aquifer 800 m under the floor of the Norwegian
- Japan, Norway, Canada, a Swiss company, and the United States have
agreed to conduct a pilot-scale field experiment in which a pipeline
will be laid on the seafloor off the coast of Hawaii and liquid CO2
will be released at a depth of 1000 m.
- Trade-Offs in Fossil Fuel Use: The Effects of CO2,
CH4, and SO2 Aerosol Emissions on Climate, K. A. S.
Hayhoe et al., World Resource Rev. 10 (3), 321-333
Switching fuels from coal to gas was found to increase the global mean
temperature for the first 40 years of the study period. Thereafter, it had
a mitigating effect on temperature change. The results are strongly
dependent on methane releases to the atmosphere during transport and
processing, sulfur emissions and their forms during combustion, and the
magnitude of radiative forcing attributed to aerosols.
Magnitude and Distribution of Collateral Impacts from Carbon Dioxide
Emissions Stabilization Scenarios, K. J. Holmes and J. H. Ellis,World
Resource Rev. 10 (3), 334-347 (1998).
An integrated-assessment model was used to simulate four pathways for
lowering CO2 emissions: decreased population growth, low-cost
biomass energy, carbon taxes, and low-cost nuclear power. The results
indicated that CO2 emission stabilization was not sufficient
to reduce future climate change; other emissions (SO2, CH4,
and halocarbons) play a major role in global warming; low-cost biomass
would result in the lowest warming but would increase sulfur and mercury
emissions; and low-cost nuclear power would reduce warming but greatly
increase the amount of nuclear waste to be disposed of.
The Kyoto Protocol: Provisions and Unresolved Issues Relevant to
Land-Use Change and Forestry, Bernhard Schlamadinger (firstname.lastname@example.org)
and Gregg Marland (email@example.com),Env. Sci. and Policy 1,
An analysis of the Kyoto Protocol found that certain passages are
ambiguous and that the Protocol limits opportunities to use forest-related
activities to meet national obligations to reduce greenhouse-gas
emissions. Portions and aspects of the Protocol that merit further
consideration and clarification before it is put into force include:
- The term reforestation needs to be clearly defined.
- Article 3.3 contains contradictory language about how credits are to
- The provision in Article 3.7 that bars countries having a net carbon
sink attributable to land-use change and forestry in 1990 from including
those emissions in calculating their 1990 baseline should be rethought.
- The rules governing how the baselines are to be set for joint
implementation and the clean development mechanism need to be clarified.
- Additional forest-management activities need to be included.
- Management of Philippine Tropical Forests: Implications to
Global Warming, R. D. Lasco, World Resource Rev. 10
(3), 410-418 (1998).
Since 1900, the Philippines has lost 15.7 M ha of tropical forests. This
loss represents 2.7 billion tons of carbon. Four management strategies
were identified for dealing with this loss: preserving all old-growth
forests, using second- growth forests for forest products, rehabilitating
degraded lands through reforestation, and stabilizing upland farms through
agroforestry. Calculations showed that, if these practices were followed,
Philippine forests would be able to sequester 33 to 42% of Philippine CO2
The Impact of Photovoltaics on CO2 Emissions
Reduction in the U.S., V. M. Fthenakis and J. C. Lee, World
Resource Rev. 10 (3), 434-445 (1998).
Photovoltaic technologies were investigated with the MARKAL-MACRO model.
With improvements in cost and efficiency assumed, photovoltaics were seen
to be competitive sources of electricity in the Southwest United States by
2010. Assuming favorable market penetration, an installed base of 140 GW
could displace 64 million metric tons of carbon emissions per year by
Contributions of Canadian Agriculture to Greenhouse Gas Emissions:
Preliminary Results of Selected Policy Options, S. N. Kulshreshtha
et al.,World Resource Rev. 10 (4), 515-535 (1998).
An integrated economic planning and emissions model was calibrated to
1990 and used to estimate greenhouse-gas emissions from Canadian
agriculture in the year 2010 under the assumption that soil organic matter
would be in equilibrium. Under current practices, emissions are expected
to decrease 6.4% during the study period. Seven mitigative measures were
tested. Neither reducing summer fallowing nor increasing conservation
tillage had any appreciable effect on emissions. Improving fuel efficiency
of farm equipment and reducing fertilizer applications each reduced
emissions by almost 2%. Improving manure-handling systems and rumen
efficiency decreased emissions up to 4%, but increased consumption of red
meat could undercut any of these gains.
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