February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 11, NUMBER 7, JULY 1998
CLIMATE CHANGE POLICY
"The Kyoto Protocol: CO2, CH4 and Climate
Implications," T.M.L. Wigley (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307;
e-mail: email@example.com), Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(13),
2285-2288, July 1, 1998.
Examines three scenarios for post-Kyoto emissions reductions, and their
implications for CO2, temperature, and sea level. In all
cases, the long-term consequences are small. Interprets the limitations of
the Protocol as both CO2 and methane emissions reductions, and
introduces a new Forcing Equivalence Index for comparing the relative
radiative impacts of CO2 and methane.
"Rethinking the Role of Adaptation in Climate Policy," R.A.
Pielke Jr. (Environ. & Societal Impacts Group, NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder
CO 80307; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org),Global Environ. Change, 8(2),
159-170, July 1998.
Adaptation refers to adjustments in individual, group, and institutional
behavior in order to reduce society's vulnerabilities to climate, and thus
reduce its impacts. The IPCC has concluded that adaptation offers a
powerful option for responding to climate change, yet most attention has
been devoted to mitigation (attempts to limit climate change). This paper
discusses the limits of mitigation responses, and the need for greater
emphasis on adaptation in climate policy.
"Developing Country's Perspective on COP3 Development (Kyoto
Protocol)," S. Shin (Korea Energy Econ. Inst., Kyunggi-do,
Euiwang-si, Nacson-dong 665-1, 437-080 Korea),Energy Policy, 26(7),
519-526, June 1998.
Discusses possible solutions for burden sharing involving developing
countries. Reviews the Protocol, considering major driving forces and
indicators of negotiation. Proposes three candidate solutions for burden
sharing and developing country involvement.
"Kyoto and Beyond: A Climate Protection Strategy for the 21st
Century: What Are the Options for Germany and China?" W. Bach (Clim. &
Energy Res. Unit, Univ. Muenster, R.-Koch-Str. 26, 48149 Muenster, Ger.),World
Resource Review, 10(2), 242-263, June 1998.
Discusses the strengths and strategic deficits of the Kyoto Protocol,
and proposes a more tractable climate protection strategy consisting of
seven elements. These include an equitable grouping of the world's nations
for achieving fair burden sharing, and legally binding emissions targets
by groups of countries. The strategy is demonstrated for Germany and
China. Concludes by outlining a strategy based on ecological innovation as
a guide toward a sustainable future.
"Kyoto Protocol: The Unfinished Agenda," S.H. Schneider (Dept.
Biol. Sci., Stanford Univ., Stanford CA 94304; e-mail:
email@example.com),Clim. Change, 39(1), 1-21, May
The author, one of the relatively few scientists who participated at the
December 1997 Kyoto meeting, offers his personal views of the political
and social dynamics of the gathering, and discusses mechanisms needed to
address global warming in the long term.
Special issue: "Climate Strategy for the United States: "Bottom-Up"
Analyses of CO2 reductions, Costs and Benefits," S.
Bernow, M. Duckworth, J. DeCicco, Guest Eds., Energy Policy, 26(5),
Apr. 1998 (Elsevier Science Ltd.). Consists of an introduction and seven
"Editors' Introduction," S. Bernow (Tellus Inst., 11 Arlington
St., Boston, Mass.), M. Duckworth, J. De Cicco, 355-356. The following
papers carefully consider the interaction among market conditions,
technological innovation and diffusion, and public policy. They arrive at
three main conclusions: (1) there exist policy mechanisms that can
overcome market, institutional, and other barriers; (2) these policies
would result in significant reductions of carbon emissions in the U.S. in
the near term, with net economic benefits; (3) such policies would induce
further technological diffusion and innovation over the longer term, with
further reductions in emissions along a path broadly consistent with
climate protection and sustainable development.
"An Evaluation of Integrated Climate Protection Policies for the
US," S. Bernow (address above), M. Duckworth, 357-374.
"An Integrated Approach to Climate Policy in the US Electric Power
Sector" S. Bernow (address above), W. Dougherty et al., 375-393.
"Meeting the Energy and Climate Challenge for Transportation in the
United States," J. DeCicco (Amer. Council for an Energy-Efficient
Economy, 1001 Conn. Ave. NW (S. 801), Washington DC 20036), J. Mark,
"Investing in Industrial Innovation: A Response to Climate Change,"
R. N. Elliott (address immed. above), M. Pye, 413-423.
"Employment and Other Macroeconomic Benefits of an Innovation-Led
Climate Strategy for the United States," S. Laitner (U.S. EPA, 401 M
St. SW, Washington DC 20460), S. Bernow, J. DeCicco, 425-432.
"Costs of Reducing Carbon Emissions: US Building Sector Scenarios,"
J.G. Koomey (Energy Analysis Prog., Lawrence Berkeley Lab., Berkeley CA
94720), N.C. Martin et al., 433-440.
"The Efficiency Paradox: Bureaucratic and Organizational Barriers
to Profitable Energy-Saving Investments," S.J. DeCanio (Dept. Econ.,
Univ. California, Santa Barbara CA 93106), 441-454.
"Operationalizing 'Joint Implementation': Organizational and
Institutional Aspects of a New Instrument in International Climate Policy,"
H.E. Ott (Clim. Policy Div., Wuppertal Inst. for Climate, Environ. &
Energy, Postfach 100 480, Doppersberg 19, D-42103 Wuppertal, Ger.),Global
Environ. Change, 8(1), 11-47, Apr. 1998.
Explores the possible design of a future international mechanism for JI
and makes recommendations on institutional and procedural requirements.
Because JI has a "perverse incentive" to overstate results
achieved by individual projects, careful reporting, monitoring and
verification procedures are essential.
"Joint ImplementationThe Baseline Issue: Economic and Political
Aspects," A. Michaelowa (177 Bd. de la République, 92210
St.-Cloud, France; firstname.lastname@example.org),Global Environ. Change,
8(1), 81-92, Apr. 1998.
Discusses the importance of defining for JI projects an appropriate
baselinethe emission that would have occurred without the project.
Surveys some baselines of current JI projects and finds serious flaws.
"An Equity- and Sustainability-Based Policy Response to Global
Climate Change," J. Byrne (Ctr. Energy & Environ. Policy, Univ.
Delaware), Y.-D. Wang et al.,Energy Policy, 26(4),
335-343, Mar. 1998.
The two major precautionary energy approaches that have been advocated"no
regrets" and "insurance"each have difficulties that
argue against their adoption as an international policy framework. This
article proposes an alternative approach to the definition and
distribution of the costs of changing the energy sector to avert climate
"The Emperor Needs New Clothes: Long-Range Energy-Use Scenarios by
IIASA-WEC and IPCC," J.K. Parikh (Indira Gandhi Inst., Gen. Vaidya
Marg, Goregaon (East), Bombay 400 065, India),Energy, 23(1),
69-70, Jan. 1998.
Evaluates IIASA-World Energy Council energy scenarios up to 2100, and
shows that they satisfy economic and environmental criteria and take into
account resource and market penetration constraints. They are contrasted
with the IPCC scenarios of 1992, which are too simplistic.
"A Framework for Reaching Agreement on Climate Change: Morals,
Self-Interest, and Strategy," F.T. Tschang (Inst. Advanced Studies,
U.N. Univ., Tokyo, Japan; e-mail: email@example.com), N.S. Murthy,
K.S.K. Kumar,Global Environ. Change, 7(4), 381-389, Dec.
1997. Also see this Web site: http://www.unu.edu.
Discusses the stalled negotiations on climate change and makes
suggestions for circumventing obstacles. Examines elements of a conceptual
framework for assessing the feasibility of an agreement.
"Uncertainty, Short-Term Hedging and the Tolerable Window Approach,"
G.W. Yohe (Dept. Econ., Wesleyan Univ., Middletown CT 06459),Global
Environ. Change, 7(4), 303-315, Dec. 1997.
Uses a simple integrated assessment model, designed to accommodate
uncertainty in investigating the potential role of hedging, in a new
context: setting global policy so that future conditions stay within a "window"
that places tolerable limits on the pace and level of temperature change
over the very long term. Results suggest that near-term emissions might
need to be held close to 1990 levels at least through the year 2020. This
is perhaps the first time that a cost-based analysis has offered any
support for such extreme mitigation.
"Climate Change and Energy Policy: The Impacts and Implications of
Aerosols," see Clouds, Aerosols and Climate, this Global Climate
Change Digest issue--July 1998.
"Global Warming Potentials: Ambiguity or Precision as an Aid to
Policy?" S. Shackley, B. Wynne, Clim. Res., 8(2),
89-106, May 8, 1997.
It is widely assumed that the more certain and precise the scientific
knowledge base for predicting climate change, the better will be response
policies. This paper argues to the contrary that in the case of global
warming potentials, ambiguity in their precise meaning is a major reason
why they have been developed and continue to be useful as scientific
policy tools. Discusses several implications for the construction and use
of scientific policy tools.
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