February 28, 2007
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Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 8, NUMBER 12, DECEMBER 1995
"Back to the
Little Ice Age," P.D. Moore (Div. Life Sci., King's Coll., Campden Hill
Rd., London W8 7AH, UK), Nature, 377(6551), 684-685, Oct. 26,
Little progress has been made in using paleoecological techniques to study
the possible response of arctic vegetation to global warming because of the lack
of trees there. However, Cassiope tetra-gona, a member of the
heather family, produces leafy shoots in which it is possible to detect annual
growth. In J. Functional Ecology, 9, 650-654, 1995, Havstrom et
al. report on finding the remains of fossil Cassiope that showed reduced
growth and flowering rates during the Little Ice Age. Such studies might provide
the basis for predicting the response of arctic plants to projected future
changes in climate.
Ecological Implications of Climatic Change: Can We Rely on Our Simulation
Models?" H. Hänninen (Faculty For., Univ. Joensuu, POB 111, FIN-80101
Joensuu, Finland), Clim. Change, 31(1), 1-4, Sep. 1995.
Ecological models are often validated with data gathered in natural
conditions. If the model is then used to assess the implication of climate
change without subjecting it to further tests, the assumption is made that
precision, in the case of present climate, guarantees the realism of the model
and precision in the case of changing climate. Examines this assumption by
reviewing studies on the implications of climate change for boreal forests in
Finland. Found that the precision of a model in predicting ecosystem functioning
under present climate conditions does not guarantee the realism of the model nor
the precision for predictions under changing climate conditions.
of Evapotranspiration by Rising Levels of Atmospheric CO2,"
J.G. Lockwood (Univ. Leeds,U.K.), Weather, 50(9), 304-308, Sep.
The rise of the daily minimum temperature has occurred at a rate three times
that of the maximum from 1951 to 1990. This asymmetry will affect long-term
changes in water balance because most vegetation transpiration takes place
during daytime and will respond to changes in daytime maximum temperatures
rather than changes in the mean. However, rising CO2 concentrations
enhance the bulk canopy resistance of dry vegetation and suppress transpiration.
If atmospheric CO2 levels continue to rise with only a small
increase in maximum temperature, transpiration will continue to be suppressed;
if maximum temperature rises significantly, the opposite effect might be
of Fire and Global Change: The Southern U.S. as an Example," J.I. Zerbe
(USDA For. Serv., One Gifford Pinchot Dr., Madison WI 53705), World Resour.
Rev., 7(2), 221-230, June 1995.
A discussion of ecological and policy implications. Climate warming can
cause forests to be drier and lead to an increase in severity and extent of
wildfires, with increased CO2 emission. Climate-driven changes in
the structure and composition of plant communities may alter susceptibility to
fires. A better understanding of the complex interactions with their many
unknowns and variables will require an integration of global climate and
"The Responses of
Species to Climate over Two Centuries: An Analysis of the Marsham Phenological
Record, 1736-1947," T.H. Sparks (Inst. Terres. Ecol., Monks Wood, Abbots
Ripton, Huntingdon, Cambridgeshire PE17 2LS, UK), P.D. Carey, J. Ecol.,
83(2), 321-329, Apr. 1995.
Examines the Marsham (Norfolk, U.K.) data for the first indications of
spring, in relation to monthly temperature data and annual rainfall data and for
unexplained trends. Concludes that, if commonly used climate scenarios are
accurate, most or all of the indications of spring noted in the Marsham record
will occur earlier in the calendar year.
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