February 28, 2007
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A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBERS 11-12, NOVEMBER-DECEMBER 1994
PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS... AIRCRAFT EMISSIONS
"Removal of Stratospheric O3 by Radicals: In Situ
Measurements of OH, HO2, NO, NO2, ClO, and BrO," P.O.
Wennberg (Dept. Chem., Harvard Univ., 12 Oxford St., Cambridge MA
02138), R.C. Cohen et al., Science, 266(5184),
398-404, Oct. 21, 1994.
Used aircraft measurements from the 1993 SPADE (Stratospheric
Photochemistry, Aerosols and Dynamics Expedition). A single
catalytic cycle, in which the rate limiting step is the reaction
of HO2 with ozone, accounted for about half the total
stratospheric O3 removal. Halogen-radical chemistry was
responsible for about a third of photochemical removal of O3;
catalytic destruction by NO2 accounted for less than 20%. In the
air sampled, the rate of O3 removal inversely correlated with
total NOx loading, a result with implications for the impact of
stratospheric aircraft exhaust.
of the Concentrations of Trace Species in an Aircraft Plume:
Trajectory Study," M.Y. Danilin (Atmos. & Environ. Res.
Inc., 840 Memorial Dr., Cambridge MA 02139), A. Ebel et al., J.
Geophys. Res., 99(D9), 18,951-18,972, Sep. 20, 1994.
Proposed a box model of the principal physical and chemical
processes inside a plume. Model results agreed well with
experimental data for NO, NO2, HNO3, HNO2 and SO2. Local ozone
response is between 0.6% at 200 mb and -0.1% at 100 mb.
from Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(18), Sep. 1, 1994:
"Nitrous Oxide and Methane Emissions from Aero
Engines," P. Wiesen (Phys. Chem., Fachbereich 9, Bergische
Univ., D-42097 Wuppertal, Ger.), J. Kleffmann et al., 2027-2030.
Calculations indicate that at present air traffic does not
contribute significantly to the global budgets of these
"Impact of Present Aircraft Emissions of Nitrogen Oxides
on Tropospheric Ozone and Climate Forcing," D.A.
Hauglustaine (Serv. Aéron. CNRS, Univ. Paris VI, 4, pl. Jussieu,
Boîte 102, F-75252 Paris Cedex 05, France), C. Granier et al.,
2031-2034. Model results confirm that nitrogen oxide in situ
emissions are more efficient in producing ozone than are surface
emissions. The ozone increase due to aircraft nitrogen oxide
emissions reaches more than 7% during summer in the upper
troposphere at northern mid-latitudes. Radiative forcing may play
a significant role in anthropogenic forcing on Northern
Effects of CO2 Increase on the High-Speed Civil Transport Impact
on Ozone," G. Pitari (Dip. Fis., Univ. L'Aquila, via Vetoio,
67010 Coppito, L'Aquila, Italy), G. Visconti, 16,879-16,896. A
3-D radiative-dynamic model indicates that elevated CO2 alters
lower stratospheric circulation so that the residence time of odd
N is reduced by about 15%. Compensating tendencies among the ClO,
NOx, and OH cycles result in a relatively small column ozone
Impact of High Altitude Aircraft on the Ozone Layer in the
Stratosphere," X.X. Tie (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307),
G. Brasseur et al., J. Atmos. Chem., 18(2),
103-128, Feb. 1994.
Used a coupled chemical, dynamical, radiative and
microphysical two-dimensional model of the middle atmosphere for
the investigation, and determined that significant ozone
depletion can result from the formation of polar stratospheric
clouds by H2O and HNO3 from aircraft engines.
of a Polar Stratospheric Cloud Paramterization on Ozone Depletion
Due to Stratospheric Aircraft in a Two-Dimensional Model,"
D.B. Considine (NASA-Goddard, Code 916, Greenbelt MD 20771), A.R.
Douglass, C.H. Jackman, J. Geophys. Res., 99(D9),
18,879-18,894, Sep. 20, 1994.
of Exhaust Products in the Near Trail of a Jet Engine Under
Atmospheric Conditions," B. Kärcher (Bioklimatol. &
Immissionsforsch., Univ. München, Hohenbacherstr. 22, D-85354
Freising, Ger.), ibid., 99(D7), 14,509-14,517, July
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