February 28, 2007
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Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 7, NUMBER 7, JULY 1994
PROFESSIONAL PUBLICATIONS... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE
of Charge-Induced Recovery of Ozone Concentration After Catalytic
Destruction by Chlorofluorocarbons," A.Y. Wong (Dept. Phys.,
Univ. Calif., Los Angeles CA 90024), D.K. Sensharma et al., Phys.
Rev. Lett., 72(19), 3124-3127, May 9, 1994.
Used negative charges in laboratory experiments to convert
chlorine atoms released from CFCs by UV radiation to chlorine
ions that could subsequently be collected by a positive surface.
The results could potentially lead to a remediation method for
stratospheric ozone depletion. (See Res. News.)
issue: Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(13), June 22,
1994, consists of over 70 papers describing the first results of
the European Arctic Stratospheric Ozone Experiment (EASOE), which
took place in the winter of 1991-92. More than 60 research groups
including some from North America, Japan and the Australasian
region participated in data collection and modeling. For single
copies contact Amer. Geophys. Union, 2000 Florida Ave. NW,
Washington DC 20009.
of Fogs, Clouds and Aerosols," (see Aerosol section).
Reviews reactions including those involved in stratospheric
items from Science, 264(5158), Apr. 22, 1994:
"Sulfate Aerosols and Polar Stratospheric Cloud
Formation," M.A. Tolbert (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO
80309), 527-528. Reports on recent findings on heterogeneous
reactions on polar stratospheric clouds, presented at a NASA
workshop (Boulder, Colo., Nov. 1993). Increased knowledge about
the composition of stratospheric clouds may enable improved
predictions about when and where they form.
"Antarctic Total Ozone in 1958," P.A. Newman
(NASA-Goddard, Code 916, Greenbelt MD 20771), Science, 264(5158),
543-546, Apr. 22, 1994. (See GCCD, p. 2, May 1994)
items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D4), Apr. 20, 1994:
"Chemistry of the 1991-1992 Stratospheric Winter:
Three-Dimensional Model Simulations," F. Lefèvre (Ctr.
Natl. Res. Meteor., F-31057 Toulouse, France), G.P. Brasseur et
al., 8183-8195. A simulation of the 1991-1992 Arctic winter
showed that heterogeneous reactions on polar stratospheric clouds
and sulfate aerosols from the Mt. Pinatubo eruption increased
ozone-depleting ClO concentrations at middle and high latitudes.
Net destruction of O3 was limited by available sunlight and the
short period during which stratospheric clouds occurred.
"Aerosol-Associated Changes in Tropical Stratospheric
Ozone Following the Eruption of Mount Pinatubo," W.B. Grant
(Atmos. Sci. Div., NASA-Langley, Hampton VA 23665), E.V. Browell
et al., 8197-8211. The 33% decrease in ozone observed after the
eruption correlated with enhanced aerosol loading at altitudes of
16-28 km. The ozone changes may be due to a combination of
dynamic perturbations, radiative perturbations on ozone
photochemistry, and heterogeneous chemistry.
"Atmospheric Chemistry of the Reaction ClO + O2 <=>
ClO·O2: Where It Stands, What Needs to be Done, and Why?"
S.S. Prasad (Creative Res. Enterprises, POB 174, Pleasanton CA
94566), T.J. Lee, 8225-8230. Discusses the need for definitive
experiments on the existence and chemistry of ClO·O2, which has
the potential to mediate chlorine-catalyzed stratospheric ozone
Impact of High Altitude Aircraft on the Ozone Layer in the
Stratosphere," X.X. Tie (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307),
G. Brasseur et al., J. Atmos. Chem., 18(2),
103-128, Feb. 1994.
Used a coupled chemical, dynamical, radiative and
microphysical two-dimensional model of the middle atmosphere for
the investigation, and determined that significant ozone
depletion can result from the formation of polar stratospheric
clouds by H2O and HNO3 from aircraft engines.
Three-Dimensional Model Study of Nitrogen Oxides in the
Stratosphere," D.J. Lary, J.A. Pyle (Ctr. Atmos. Sci., Univ.
Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), G. Carver, Quart.
J. Royal Meteor. Soc., 120(516), 453-482, Jan. Part B.
Demonstrates a new model for stratospheric chemistry based on
a spectral general circulation model. It produces a feature,
similar to the Noxon cliff, in which the NO2 column is reduced
significantly at high latitudes. The cliff is produced by
gas-phase conversion of NO2 to N2O5.
from Geophys. Res. Lett., 21(10), May 15, 1994:
"Energetic Particle-Induced Enhancements of Stratospheric
Nitric Acid," A.C. Aikin (Lab. Atmos., NASA-Goddard,
Greenbelt MD 20771), 859-862.
"Photodissociation of O2 and H2O in the Middle
Atmosphere: Comparison of Numerical Methods and Impact on Model
O3 and OH," D.E. Siskind (Ctr. Space Res., Naval Res. Lab.,
Code 7641, Washington DC 20375), K. Minschwaner, R.S. Eckman,
"Growth of Nitric Acid Hydrates on Thin Sulfuric Acid
Films," L.T. Iraci (CIRES, Univ. Colorado, Boulder CO
80309), A.M. Middlebrook et al., 867-870.
"Composition and Freezing of Aqueous H2SO4/HNO3 Solutions
Under Polar Stratospheric Conditions," K.D. Beyer (Dept.
Earth, Atmos. & Planetary Sci., Mass. Inst. Technol.,
Cambridge MA 02139), S.W. Seago et al., 871-874.
items from ibid., 21(9), May 1, 1994:
"Rate Constants for the Reactions of OH with CH3Cl,
CH2Cl2, CHCl3, and CH3Br," K.-J. Hsu (Jet Propulsion Lab.,
4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena CA 91109), W.B. DeMore, 805-808.
"Southern Hemisphere Ground Based Measurements of
Carbonyl Fluoride (COF2) and Hydrogen Fluoride (HF): Partitioning
Between Fluoride Reservoir Species," A.R. Reisinger (Inst.
Remote Sensing, Univ. Bremen, POB 330 440, 28534 Bremen, Ger.),
N.B. Jones et al., 797-800.
"Stratospheric Warmings During February and March
1993," G.L. Manney (Jet Propulsion Lab., 4800 Oak Grove Dr.,
Pasadena CA 91109), R.W. Zurek et al., 813-816.
from ibid., 21(7), Apr. 1, 1994:
"Temperature Dependence of the Ozone Absorption Spectrum
over the Wavelength Range 410 to 760 nm," J.B. Burkholder
(Aeron. Lab., NOAA, 325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), R.K.
"Temperature Dependence of the ClONO2 UV Absorption
Spectrum," J.B. Burkholder (addr. immed. above), R.K.
Talukdar, A.R. Ravishankara, 585-588.
"Southern Hemisphere Mid-Latitude Seasonal Cycle in Total
Column Nitric Acid," N.B. Jones (Natl. Inst. Water &
Atmos., Lauder, New Zealand), M. Koike et al., 593-596.
"Impact of Pinatubo Aerosols on the Partitioning Between
NO2 and HNO3," M. Koike (Solar-Terr. Environ. Lab., Nagoya
Univ., Toyokawa, Aichi, Japan), N.B. Jones et al., 597-600.
items from J. Geophys. Res., 99(D2), Feb. 20, 1994:
"On the Distribution of Cold Air near the Vortex Edge in
the Lower Stratosphere," X. Tao (CIRES, Univ. Colorado,
Boulder CO 80309), A.F. Tuck, 3431-3450.
"Visible and Near-Ultraviolet Spectroscopy at McMurdo
Station, Antarctica. 10. Reductions of Stratospheric NO2 Due to
Pinatubo Aerosols," S. Solomon (CMDL, NOAA, 325 Broadway,
Boulder CO 80303), R.W. Sanders et al., 3509-3516.
"The Reaction Probability of N2O5 with Sulfuric Acid
Aerosols at Stratospheric Temperatures and Compositions," A.
Fried (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), B.E. Henry et al.,
"The Moon as a Light Source for FTIR Measurements of
Stratospheric Trace Gases During the Polar Night: Application for
HNO3 in the Arctic," J. Notholt (A. Wegener Inst. Polar
& Meeresforschung, Forschungsstelle Potsdam, Postfach 60014
Potsdam, D-14401 Ger.), 3607-3614.
"Heterogeneous Reactions in Sulfuric Acid Aerosols: A
Framework for Model Calculations," D.R. Hanson (CMDL, NOAA,
325 Broadway, Boulder CO 80303), A.R. Ravishankara, S. Solomon,
"High-Resolution Analysis of Direct and Scattered
Radiation in the Stratosphere Between 175 and 210 nm," K.
Minschwaner (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307), 3677-3684.
"Branching Ratios for the O(1D) + N2O
Reaction," C.A. Cantrell (NCAR, POB 3000, Boulder CO 80307),
R.E. Shetter, J.G. Calvert, 3739-3743.
from ibid., 99(D1), Jan. 20, 1994:
"A Three-Dimensional Transport Model for the Middle
Atmosphere," P.J. Rasch (addr. immed. above), X.X. Tie et
"Age as a Diagnostic of Stratospheric Transport,"
T.M. Hall (Lab. Modélisation Climat & Environ., CEA-DSM CE
Saclay (Bat. 709), 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France), R.A. Plumb,
"Ozone Within the El Chichón Aerosol Cloud Inferred from
Solar Backscatter Ultraviolet Continuous-Scan Measurements,"
G. Wen (Environ. Res. Div., Argonne Natl. Lab., Argonne IL
60439), J.E. Frederick, 1263-1271.
"Aerosol Effect on Umkehr Ozone Profiles Using
Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment II Measurements,"
M.J. Newchurch (Res. Inst., Univ. Alabama, RI-E47, Huntsville AL
35899), D.M. Cunnold, 1383-1388.
of Stratospheric Composition to Oxygen Absorption of Solar
Radiation (175-210 nm)," R. Toumi (Ctr. Atmos. Sci., Univ.
Cambridge, Lensfield Rd., Cambridge CB2 1EW, UK), S. Bekki, J.
Atmos. Chem., 18(1), 57-73, Jan. 1994.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations