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Item #d92oct19

Special Issue: "Energy, Environment and Development," A.K. Biswas, Guest Ed., Energy Policy, 20(6), June 1992. (Butterworth-Heinemann Ltd., Linacre Hse., Jordan Hill, Oxford OX2 8DP, UK)

"Energy, Environment and Development," M.F. Strong (Secy.-General, U.N. Conf. Environ. & Devel., POB 80, CH-1231 Conches, Switz.), 490-494. The need of the developing countries for financial and technical support for a transition to ecologically sustainable economies calls for a new global partnership based on common interests, mutual need and shared responsibilities.

"China's Dual-Thrust Energy Strategy: Economic Development and Environmental Protection," Qu Geping (Nat. Environ. Protection Agency, 115 Xizhimennei Nanxiaojie, Beijing, China), 500-506. The new strategy should include, for instance, control of energy consumption, solar power and other forms of clean energy, and increased conversion of coal into clean electric power.

"Can Hydroreservoirs in Tropical Moist Forest Be Made Environmentally Acceptable?" R. Goodland (Dept. Environ., World Bank, 1818 H St. NW, Washington DC 20433), A. Juras, R. Pachauri, 507-515. Well designed hydro can avoid most environmental costs and be a renewable and sustainable option preferable to coal and nuclear.

"Wood, Still a Neglected Energy Source," C.H. Murray (Forestry Dept., U.N. FAO, Viale delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome), M.R. de Montalembert, 516-521. In many countries wood is a crucial but environmentally benign and renewable resource. Suggests policies which grant fuelwood its due importance within the broad context of social, environmental and economic linkages.

"Barriers to Energy End-Use Efficiency," B.N. Lohani (Off. Environ., Asian Devel. Bank, POB 789, Manila, 1099 The Philippines), A.M. Azimi, 533-545. Describes a study of energy policies that could contribute to the solution of both local and global problems, initiated by the Asian Development Bank. It focused on the technical and economic details of energy end uses in India. Some conclusions are surprising.

"The Role of Energy Economists in Promoting Sustainable Energy Development," G.C. Watkins (DataMetrics Ltd., S. 440, 1201 5th St. SW, Calgary, Alberta 72R OY6, Can.), 575-580. The enhanced scope and new expertise required of energy economists would lead to a better understanding of the place of natural resources in the production process, better delineation of trade-offs between ecological degradation and economic stagnation, and more interdisciplinary feedback.

"Renewable Energy in Rural Areas of Developing Countries: Some Recommendations for a Sustainable Strategy," H.M. Rady (Res. Inst. for Intl. Tech. & Econ. Coop., Aachen Univ. Technol., Henricistr. 50, 5100 Aachen, Ger.), 581-588. Discusses why there has been no widespread dissemination of renewable technologies, and some principles for overcoming these obstacles.

Item #d92oct20

Three other items in Energy Policy, 20(6), June 1992:

"The Earth Summit: Opportunity for Energy Reform," G. Kats (16 Kelseytown Bridge Rd., Clinton CT 06413), 546-558.

"Analyzing the Cost of an OECD Environmental Tax to the Developing Countries," I.O. Walker (OPEC Secretariat, Obere Donaaustr. 93, 1020 Vienna 11, Austria), F. Birol, 559-567. Results of a standard econometric model show that a carbon tax in the OECD countries could seriously restrict development in developing countries, showing the need for a global perspective when designing effective environmental policies.

"A Comparison of Aggregate Energy Demand Models for Global Warming Policy Analyses," R.D. Beaver (Energy Modeling Forum, 408 Terman Eng. Ctr., Stanford Univ., Stanford CA 94305), H.G. Huntington, 568-574. Compares the treatment of the demand for all fuels (aggregate energy) in 11 models being used to analyze economic and energy-sector policy impacts.

Item #d92oct21

Four items from Energy Policy, 20(5), May 1992:

Discussion between L.G. Brooks and M. Grubb on whether a program of energy efficiency improvements can help with the problem of global warming, 390-393.

"Stabilizing CO2 Emissions: Are Carbon Taxes a Viable Option?" T. Haugland (ECON, Ctr. Econ. Analysis, Storgata 11, 0155 Oslo 1, Norway), O. Olsen, K. Roland, 405-419. Provides an empirical analysis of the effect on international energy markets of policies to curb CO2 emissions, and discusses the concept of cost-effectiveness in designing a climate convention. Due to the huge differences in pretax energy prices, a uniform CO2 tax is not necessarily cost-effective.

"The Marginality of Regulating Marginal Investments--Why We Need a Systemic Perspective on Environmental Externality Adders," C.J. Andrews (Woodrow Wilson Sch., 204 Robertson Hall, Princeton Univ., Princeton NJ 08544), 450-463. A case study suggests that when applying adders to cost-benefit ratios to account for environmental impacts, targeting only the marginal investments provides meager results. A systemic perspective on emissions reduction is superior.

"Strategies for Implementing Renewable Energy: Lessons from Europe," J. Twidell (Energy Studies Unit, George St., Glasgow G1 1XW, UK), R. Brice, 464-479. Across Europe, there has been considerable experience with renewable energy. Common lessons that can be drawn for formulating a coherent strategy are discussed.

Item #d92oct22

Four items from Energy Policy, 20(4), Apr. 1992:

"Energy Development, Regional Cooperation, and CO2 Emissions in Central America," R.H. Hosier (Ctr. Energy & Environ., Univ. Pennsylvania, Philadelphia PA 19104), M.A. Bernstein, E. Hildebrandt, 297-309. Simulates two energy futures for Central America: a minimum cost (maximum development) scenario and a minimum CO2 emissions scenario. Costs of cutting emissions here are low, and Central America can use them to negotiate treaties and agreements and, eventually, the sale of carbon emission rights to countries or companies facing more expensive reduction strategies.

"Energy in the Long Term: Mobilization or Laissez-Faire?" P.-H. Bourrelier (Houill?res du Bassin du Centre et du Midi, Tour Albert 1er, 65, ave. de Colmar, 92507 Rueil-Malmaison, France), X. Boy de la Tour, J.-J. Lacour, 310-325. Gives an extensive analysis of factors (including environmental protection goals) that influence long-term trends in energy economics.

"Renewables and the Full Costs of Energy," O. Hohmayer (Fraunhofer Inst. Systems & Innovation Res., Breslauer Str. 48, D-7500 Karlsruhe, Ger.), 365-375. Shows that the present prices of nonrenewable energy sources are heavily subsidized by not including the costs of health and environmental damages as well as costs handed onto future generations, so that the relative costs of renewables look far more favorable than present market prices indicate.

Conference reports: Transportation and Global Climate Change: Long-Run Options, Pacific Grove, Calif., Aug. 1991; Working Together for a Better Environment: Challenges for Transport (Royal Inst. of Public Admin.), London, Oct. 1991; 376-379.

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