Archives of the
Global Climate Change Digest
A Guide to Information on Greenhouse Gases and Ozone Depletion
Published July 1988 through June 1999
FROM VOLUME 5, NUMBER 10, OCTOBER 1992
ENERGY/CO2 POLICY; ENERGY USE
The International Energy Agency (IEA) Technology Information
Exchange System of the OECD offers access to data and information on energy
technologies to reduce and control greenhouse gases, for developing countries
and those in transition as well as for OECD countries. A brochure is available.
The following reports are for sale by OECD:
Global Energy: The Changing Outlook, 1992. Examines recent
developments in energy demand and supply in non-OECD countries and outlines IEA
projections for those regions to 2005. Considers the implications of these
developments for the way in which OECD countries can meet energy security and
Coal Information 1992, Aug. 1992, FF525/$112. Includes current world
coal market trends and long-term prospects, demand, trade, production etc. OECD
coal demand is expected to grow 1.3% between 1991 and 2000, while total demand
will grow 12%.
Electricity Supply in the OECD, Apr. 1992, FF450/$96. Examines key
challenges facing the industry, including meeting growing demand while achieving
Energy in Non-OECD Countries: Selected Topics 1991, 1991. Examines
recent energy-related changes in developing countries and the European economies
in transition, including energy-related environmental problems in the developing
Guidelines for the Economic Analysis of Renewable Energy Technology
Applications, 1991. Presents detailed methods for estimating costs of a
range of renewable energy technologies, with examples. Based on an international
Fuel Efficiency of Passenger Cars, 1991. Examines factors
influencing fuel demand, pricing, taxation, efficiency targets and regulations,
and the impact of policies to limit emissions. Summarizes national transport
Energy Policies of IEA Countries--1990 Review, 1991. One in a series
of annual reviews, with energy and environment as a major topic.
Annual Report on Energy Policies, France 1991, 1992. This first
review by the IEA for France, which joined the IEA in 1992, finds that efforts
to reduce CO2 emissions must be strengthened to meet the country's declared
emission reduction goal.
Contact the Economics Department at the Paris OECD address about the
following working papers:
Energy Prices, Taxes and Carbon Dioxide Emissions (Econ. Dept.
Working Paper 106), P. Hoeller, M. Wallin, 1992.
Energy Taxation and Price Distortions in Fossil Fuel Markets: Some
Implications for Climate Change Policy (Econ. Dept. Working Paper 110), P.
Hoeller, J. Coppel, 1992.
Global 2100: Alternative Scenarios for Reducing Carbon Emissions
(Econ. Dept. Working Paper 111), A.S. Manne, 1992.
The Welfare Effects of Fossil Carbon Restrictions: Results from a
Recursively Dynamic Trade Model (Econ. Dept. Working Paper 112), T.
Rutherford (Econ. Dept., Univ. Colorado), 1992.
Degrees of Change: Steps towards an Ontario Global Warming Strategy,
Ont. Global Warming Coalition, 158 pp., 1991. NTIS: MIC-92-02216; $43.
Sponsored by Ont. Min. Environ., Ont. Min. Energy (Toronto).
Surveys the most promising policy measures for reducing CO2 emissions, the
primary market and institutional barriers to them, and reforms needed to
overcome these barriers. Considers cost-effectiveness, and examines a case study
involving commercializing new natural gas cogeneration technologies.
CO2 Reduction Consensus. A Conceptual Framework for Global CO2
Reduction Targets: The Importance of Energy Technology Development
(ECN-RX-91-093), P.A. Oken (Netherland Energy Res. Foundation, Petten), 25 pp.,
Dec. 1991. NTIS: DE92-790187; $17.
The recommendation of the IPCC Science Group to reduce CO2 emissions by 60%
is considered to be the result of a consensus process. A conceptual framework
for this process is constructed, and various arguments discussed that lead to
higher or lower CO2 reduction recommendations. For the transport sector and coal
power generation, demonstrates that greater than 60% reductions are possible
through new technologies.
Summary of the Presentations at the International Workshop on
Reducing Carbon Dioxide Emissions from the Developing World: Assessment of
Benefits, Costs and Barriers (LBL-30850), J. Sathaye (Lawrence Berkeley
Lab.), N. Goldman, 50 pp., June 1991. NTIS: DE92-004171; $17.
Reports on a workshop held to discuss (1) the feasibility of incorporating
efficiency improvements and fuel switching into the long-term energy scenarios
created for 17 developing countries, and (2) costs and benefits of reducing
energy-related CO2 emissions generated by developing countries.
IEA ETSAP studies: The following brief articles appeared in
recent issues of the International Energy Agency's ETSAP News,
describing work of IEA's Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP).
Contact Tom Kram, ESC/Global Issues, Neth. Energy Res. Foundation, POB 1, 1755
ZG Petten, Neth. (tel: +31-2246-4347); or newsletter editor Douglas Hill, 15
Anthony Ct., Huntington NY 11743 (516-421-5544).
"CO2 Emissions Reduction Costly to Switzerland," July 1992 issue.
With most of its energy generated by nonfossil sources, Switzerland will find
further reductions in CO2 emissions extraordinarily expensive. The country can
best contribute to the goal of reducing global warming if it is also credited
with reductions in other greenhouse gases.
"A Second Look at Sweden's Energy Future," May 1992 issue. A
revised analysis using the MARKAL model, which assumes higher economic growth,
finds that such growth is incompatible with both CO2 emission reductions and a
phaseout of nuclear power.
"Norway's Lessons for New MARKAL Users," May 1992 issue. Conveys
the experience of development of a PC-based MARKAL energy model in Norway, which
is now being used to address policy questions such as carbon taxes for that
Available from American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy,
2140 Shattuck Ave., S. 202, Berkeley CA 94704 (510-549-9914). Add $2 handling.
Electricity End-Use Efficiency: Experience with Technologies, Markets
and Policies throughout the World, M. Levine, H. Geller et al., 125 pp.,
1992, $25. Prepared with Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory for the U.S. Department of
Energy. Describes status of technologies, barriers to their implementation and
policies to encourage them.
Opportunities for Improving End-Use Electricity Efficiency in India,
S. Nadel, V. Kothari, S. Gopinath, 245 pp., 1991, $35. Prepared for the U.S.
Agency for International Development and the World Bank. Shows how India can
reduce capital requirements by reallocating some funds from new power plants to
Feebates for Fuel Economy: Market Incentives for Encouraging Consumers
to Buy Efficient Vehicles, J. DeCicco, H. Geller, J. Morrill, 40 pp., 1992,
$6. Discusses the use of new vehicle purchase price incentives to promote the
fuel economy of cars and light trucks, and examines options and the expected
impact of incentives.
Savings from CAFE: Projections of the Future Oil Savings from Light
Vehicle Fuel Economy Legislation, J. DiCicco, 25 pp., 1992, $5. Analyzes
strengthened corporate average fuel economy (CAFE) standards, including factors
that can affect their success, with specific projections for recent proposals in
Options for Reducing Oil Use by Light Vehicles: An Analysis of
Technologies and Policy, M. Ross, M. Ledbetter, F. An, 100 pp., 1991, $25.
Shows that the average rated fuel economy of new cars can be cost-effectively
improved to 42 mpg in 10 years, through policies such as standards, the guzzler
tax, and support for innovation.
Light Vehicles: Polices for Reducing Their Energy Use and
Environmental Impacts, M. Ledbetter, M. Ross, 50 pp., 1991, $7. Topics
include energy taxes, performance standards, technology policy and market
Discussion papers from Resources for the Future, available for a
nominal fee from RFF Publications, 1616 P St. NW, Washington DC 20036
Accounting for Environmental Costs in Electric Utility Resource Supply
Planning (QE92-14), A.M. Freeman III, D. Burtraw et al. The correct
adjustment (or "adder") to be included for environmental damages, for
least-social-cost utility planning now being attempted in many states, depends
on the form of the environmental policy (taxation, tradable emissions permits,
etc.). Discusses guidelines for state utility commissions, and problems with the
The Social Costs of Electricity: How Much of the Camel to Let
into the Tent? (QE92-15), D. Burtraw, A.J. Krupnick. Considers how much, how
far, and how fast regulators should incorporate social costing (which would
include environmental costs) in utility oversight. Concludes that a cautious
approach to social costing in the electric utility sector is preferable, but in
the long run social costs should be broadly incorporated into decision making in
all sectors of the economy.
Social Costing of Electricity and the Benefits of Demand-Side Management
(QE92-19), K.L. Palmer.
Available from National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave. NW,
Washington DC 20418 (800-624-6242 or 202-334-3313). Add $3 handling.
Nuclear Power: Technical and Institutional Options for the Future,
NRC Comm. on Future Nuclear Power Development, June 1992, $27. If the U.S. is to
retain nuclear power as an option, industry and government should make
significant institutional changes. Identifies the most promising reactor
technologies for the U.S. market, and proposes a modified program of research.
Automotive Fuel Economy: How Far Should We Go?, NRC Energy Eng.
Board, 280 pp., Apr. 1992, $34.95. All classes of new cars and light trucks sold
in the U.S. could have significantly higher levels of fuel economy by the year
2006, but technically achievable levels may not be practical from a societal
standpoint. Practical standards must balance the benefits of improved fuel
efficiency with other factors such as safety, the U.S. economy and employment.
Some Environmental Policy Implications of Recycling Paper
Products in Western Europe (Exec. Rep. 22), Y. Virtanen, S. Nilsson, 39 pp.,
July 1992. Intl. Inst. Applied Systems Analysis, A-2361 Laxenburg, Austria.
Results of this preliminary feasibility study indicate that the renewable
character and high energy content of wood seem to make energy recovery more
attractive than recycling under some conditions, since energy recovery minimizes
the use of fossil fuels. A mix of both uses is probably best.
The Going Rate: What It Really Costs to Drive, J. McKenzie, R.
Dower, D. Chen, 60 pp., May 1992, $9.95. WRI (World Resour. Inst.) Publications,
POB 4852, Hampden Sta., Baltimore MD 21211 (800-822-0504; 410-516-6963).
Estimates that the true costs of driving (including climate change) could
easily add several dollars per gallon to the price of gasoline. Proposes badly
needed reforms, which are unlikely to be accepted unless drivers pay more of the
Available from U.S. Energy Association, 1620 Eye St., NW, S. 210,
Washington DC 20006 (202-331-0415):
Getting Down to Business, 26 pp., Feb. 1992, $5. Proposes a concrete,
five-point energy efficiency strategy for the U.S. that would enhance economic
productivity while protecting the environment and lessening dependence on
Energy '92, May 1992. The sixth annual assessment of energy policy
Energy: From Crisis to Solution, H. Harvey, B. Keepin, 43 pp.,
Jan. 1991. The Energy Foundation, 75 Federal St., San Francisco CA 94107
Describes the variety of problems that cannot be solved without addressing
the underlying energy problem, and how energy efficiency is the key. Explains
institutional barriers and obsolete regulations that impede energy efficiency,
and how to overcome those hindering electric utilities, industry, buildings and
Cooling Our Communities: A Guidebook on Tree Planting and
Light-Colored Surfacing, H. Akbari et al. (U.S. EPA), Eds., 1992, $13. Supt.
Documents, POB 371954, Pittsburgh PA 15250.
Includes a list of actions which, if taken by governments, corporations,
utilities and educational institutions, could cut CO2 emissions by 1% by
reducing the energy required for air conditioning.
Lighting in Commercial Buildings, Energy Info. Admin. (U.S. Dept.
Energy), Mar. 1992. For sale by U.S. Govt. Printing Off., Washington DC 20402
The study shows that if lighting in all commercial buildings were changed to
the best available equipment, the potential energy savings could range up to
72%. Includes detailed data on lighting in the commercial sector; does not
analyze costs of conversion.
Achieving Greater Energy Efficiency in Buildings: The Role of DOE's
Office of Building Technologies, 105 pp., 1992, $20. Alliance to Save
Energy, 1725 K St. NW, S. 509, Washington DC 20006 (202-857-0666).
Representatives from industry, utilities, universities and government
recommend that DOE adopt a more cohesive and effective program structure, with
13 supporting initiatives centered on three themes: (1) making energy efficiency
happen by promoting it and removing market barriers; (2) creating new technology
options; and (3) educating energy professionals.
The World Nuclear Industry Status Report: 1992, 1992. Contact
Greenpeace Intl., c/o Canonbury Villas, Islington, London N1 2PN, UK (tel:
44-71-354-5100). For a 10-page summary contact Worldwatch Inst., 1776
Massachusetts Ave. NW, Washington DC 20036 (202-452-1999).
A survey conducted in conjunction with the Worldwatch Institute (U.S.) and
World Information Service on Energy (Paris) shows that between 1991 and 1992,
total installed nuclear generating capacity declined for the first time since
the industry began in the 1950s. While the nuclear industry has tried to use
concern over global warming to revive interest, the private sector has not
Assessment of Environmental, Health, and Safety Issues Related to the
Use of Alternative Transportation Fuels. Topical Report, October 1990-November
1991, G.F. Baker, J.A. Draves, R.F. Klausmeier, 200 pp., Feb. 1992.
Sponsored by Radian Corp. (Austin, Texas) and Gas Res. Inst. (Chicago,
Illinois). NTIS: PB92-172436; $26.
Although substituting alternative fuels may improve local air quality in the
U.S., the impact of candidate fuels (methanol, natural gas, LPG) should be
considered in light of new concerns about global warming, acidic deposition and
air toxics. There may also be health and safety risks associated with their use.
Lessons from the Netherlands: Energy Efficiency Policies in Practice,
1992, ?15. Assoc. for the Conservation of Energy, 9 Sherlock Mews, London
W1M 3RH, UK.
De haalbaarheid van de produktie van biomassa voor de Nederlandse
energiehuishouding (The Feasibility of Biomass Production for Dutch
Energy Economy), Netherlands Agency for Energy & Environ. (NOVEM) et
al., May 1992. Available in Dutch from NOVEM, POB 8242, NL 3503 RE Utrecht,
The study was prompted by recent concern with overproduction in European
agriculture as well as interest in reducing net CO2 emissions. Only multiyear
crops, such as poplar, miscanthus (elephant grass) and straw, are appropriate
for biomass energy sources. Sugar beets and wheat, favored by the Dutch Board of
Agriculture, do not provide substantial CO2 savings.
Changes in Energy Intensity in the Manufacturing Sector, 1980-1988
(DOE/EIA-0552(80-88)), Energy Info. Admin. (U.S. Dept. Energy), 70 pp., Dec.
1991. NTIS: DE92-004501; $19.
Gives results from the manufacturing Energy Consumptions Survey. Energy
intensity, defined as offsite-produced energy consumption per unit of output,
declines as energy efficiency increases.
Potential for Electricity Efficiency Improvements in the U.S.
Residential Sector (LBL-30477), J.G. Koomey et al., (Lawrence Berkeley Lab.,
Berkeley, Calif.), 254 pp., July 1991. NTIS: DE92-000727; $35.
The most elaborate assessment to date of U.S. residential sector electricity
improvements. Describes methods for creating supply curves of conserved energy,
illustrates the subtleties of assessing the technical conservation potential,
then presents the data and forecasts used, and results.
Hydrogen: the Invisible Fire, 48 pp., 1991, $10. IRT Environment
Inc., POB 10990, Aspen CO 81612 (303-927-3155).
Describes the potentially pivotal role hydrogen fuel could play in moving
beyond the carbon-combustion economy, if it is produced using sustainable energy
sources such as solar or hydro. Examines current hydrogen production and use
patterns, and current research and development.
Guide to Publishers
Index of Abbreviations