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Updated 16 November 2004
Consequences (title)
Consequences Vol. 5, No. 1, 1999








Figure 4 Total costs of holding global CO2 concentrations below eventual ceilings of 450, 550, 650, and 750 ppmv, and the reductions possible through assumed advances in energy technology. The higher set of stepped blocks at the rear of the figure give calculated costs when technologies employed in electric power generation and use are limited to what is used today. The lower set of costs, in front, are based on the technological advances that are assumed in the projections of IPCC scenario IS92a. Costs are in percent of the present discounted global gross domestic product (GDP), which in 1995 was approximately $19 trillion.

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